Fractal Morphology & Urban Complexity

Cities, like the life sciences (e.g. biology), are recognised as problems in organised complexity?(J. Jacobs, 1961, p.432). There are several adaptive forces in society which, directly and indirectly, influence the life and shape of urban areas…, [which] operate at all scales? The problem in discussing each separately is that, in real life, most of these factors are complexly interlinked in a web of causes and effects?(J. Gottmann, 1978, quoted in P. Larkham, 1996b, pp.37-38). The modern city is immensely complex? It would be natural to expect, therefore, that we must have a theory of complexity, that we have an effective and sensible way to create complexity (C. Alexander, 2002b, p.180). Processes that lead to surprising events…, new forms of geometry associated with fractal patterns, and chaotic dynamics ?all are combining to provide theories that are applicable to highly complex systems such as cities? (M. Batty, 2005, p.5)